Young woman with stomach pain

Bowel movements vary in frequency among healthy people, ranging from three times per day to three times per week. Most people fall somewhere in between these norms, passing stools without discomfort or straining. However, constipation can occur when stools become infrequent or difficult to pass. This can lead to dry and hardened stools, as well […]


mature senior woman keeping hands on chest

Cardiology is a specialty branch of medicine dedicated to the treatment and prevention of heart disease. Cardiologists help patients learn how to manage heart disease and better prevent future complications. Cardiologists also play an important role in the treatment of heart attacks and other cardiologic conditions like heart failure and heart rhythm disruptions. A cardiologist […]

Non-Invasive Vascular Studies

doctor talking and explaining test result to elderly patient

Non-invasive vascular studies are tests used to diagnose cardiovascular and circulatory conditions. Unlike some other types of vascular tests, non-invasive vascular studies are free of needles and dyes. There are many reasons for ordering a non-invasive vascular test. For example, your cardiologist may recommend further testing following a routine physical examination or the appearance of […]


Doctor's tri-ball incentive spirometry in hospital

A spirometry test is a test used to screen respiratory health. Doctors often use the test to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The results of spirometry testing reveal how much air patients can forcefully exhale from their lungs after each deep breath, as well as how much air […]

Lumbar Radiofrequency Ablation

Cardiologist use tubes for radiofrequency catheter ablation

Radiofrequency ablation is a medical procedure used to alleviate chronic lower back pain caused by an inflamed facet joint. The facet joints are located in pairs along the spine, from which medial branch nerves submit pain signals to the brain. A radiofrequency ablation (RFA) destroys these nerves using an electrically charged needle that submits heat […]

Thyroid Treatment

Concept of diagnosis and treatment of thyroid

The thyroid is like the body’s built-in thermostat, producing hormones that regulate its various systems and functions. The hormones released from the thyroid must be in careful balance to prevent symptoms that can affect the quality of life. But sometimes this butterfly-shaped gland falls out of balance, either producing too much or too little thyroid […]

Vocal Cord Dysfunction

Young woman touching painful neck

The vocal cords are not just for speaking – they actually play an important role in breathing too. When a child breathes in air, it first passes through the vocal cords and then into the trachea and lungs. But a child with vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) will have difficulty breathing in due to tightened vocal […]

Migraine Headaches

tired businessman in eyeglasses suffering from headache

Migraines are headaches that cause throbbing or pulsating pain that is usually limited to one side of the head. These headaches affect everyone differently, with some people experience mild to moderate migraines lasting for only a half hour, and others battling debilitating pain for hours or even days on end. Not everyone is prone to […]


Golfer Back pain during a game

A hernia is the bulging of an organ through a tear in the tissue or muscle that is supposed to hold it in place. Most are found in the abdomen, however, they can also be found in the groin and even upper thigh area. Surgery is nearly always recommended to avoid further complications, such as […]

Gallbladder Treatment

Disturbed male having pain in stomach

The gallbladder is a small organ that stores a substance called bile. Bile helps to digest food. When a person falls out of homeostasis their gallbladder can begin to malfunction. Oftentimes this results in the development of small crystallizations known as gallstones. Gallstones are incredibly painful and more often than not a person who suffers […]

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